Overview of All Article Types

Overview of All Article Types


Article Types



The article itself is an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.


Material announced in the publication (may or may not be directly related to the publication).

Article Commentary

A work which emphasizes on another article or articles; this article comments on the other article(s). (Article Commentary would be used when the editors of a publication invite an author with an opposing opinion to comment on a controversial article, and then publish both. The slightly similar work “editorial” is reserved for commentary written by an editor or other publication staff).

Book Review

Review or analysis of one or more printed or online books (The similar work “product-review” is used for product analysis).

Books Received

Notification that items, e.g., books or other works, have been received by a publication for the review or other consideration.

Brief Report


Rapid Communication

Short manuscripts definitively documenting either experimental results or informative clinical observations will be considered for publication in this category


A list of events.

Case Report

A case report is a case study, case report, or other description of a case that should contain a structured abstract. In the other meaning, clinical presentations that may be followed by evaluative studies that eventually lead to a diagnosis (ref).

Clinical Trial

A work that reports on the results of a clinical study in which participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions so that researchers can evaluate the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes. The assignments are determined by the study protocol. Participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions. For clinical trials on veterinary animals see CLINICAL TRIAL, VETERINARY. Clinical Trials was used for both humans and non-humans prior to 2019.


Wrapper article for a series of sub-articles or responses; this work is restricted to the articles whose intellectual content appears primarily in the sub-article or response.


Invited discussion related to a specific article or issue. Discussion should follow the sections including Introduction, Arguments, and Conclusions.


Thesis or dissertation written as a part of the degree completion.


Opinion piece, policy statement, or general commentary, typically written by staff of the publication (The similar work “article-commentary” is reserved for a commentary on a specific article or articles, which is written by an author with a contrasting position, not an editor or other publication staff).

In Brief

Summary or teaser of the items in the current issue.


An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., for a special section or issue, typically.


Work consisting of written or printed communication between individuals or between persons and representatives of corporate bodies. The correspondence may be personal or professional. In medical and other scientific publications the letter is usually from one or more authors to the editor of the journal or book publishing the item being commented upon or discussed. LETTER is often accompanied by COMMENT.

Meeting Report

Individual abstracts of presentations at meetings, congresses, conferences, symposia, colloquia, seminars, workshops, round tables, and other professional gatherings.


Works consisting of an announcement or statement of recent or current events of new data and matters of interest in the field of medicine or science. In some publications, such as "Nature" or "Science," the news reports are substantively written and herald medical and scientific data of vital or controversial importance.


Announcement of a death, or the appreciation for a colleague who has recently died.


Reprint of a speech or oral presentation.

Partial Retraction

Retraction or disavowal of part(s) of the previously published material.

Product Review

Description, analysis, or review of a product or service, for example, a software package (The similar value “book-review” is used for analysis of the books).


Reply to a letter or commentary, typically by the original author commenting upon the comments.


Reprint of a previously published article.

Research Article

Article reporting on primary research (The related value “review-article” describes a literature review, research summary, or state-of-the-art article.)


Retraction or disavowal of a previously published material. Furthermore, withdrawal regulations could be found here.

Review Article

Review or state-of-the-art summary article (The related value “research-article” describes original research.)

Systematic Review

A review of primary literature in health and health policy that attempts to identify, appraise, and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. Its conduct uses explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias in order to produce more reliable findings regarding the effects of interventions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation that can be used to inform decision making.


 Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.


A translation of an article, originally written in a different language.


Work that is the republication of an article to correct, amplify, or restore text and data of the originally published article.


Brief Report


  • Short manuscripts definitively documenting either experimental results or informative clinical observations will be considered for publication in this category.
  • Brief Reports are not intended to allow publication of incomplete or preliminary findings.
  • The review process is equally rigorous as for Regular Articles and the acceptance rate is lower.
  • Another name of this type is "Brief communication"


Abstracts must not exceed 200 words and should be a single paragraph with no subheadings. 


Full text:

Brief Reports may not exceed 1,200 words of text -counting only:

  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • A combined Results and Discussion section
  • Acknowledgements
  • Authorship Contributions
  • Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
  • References
  • In a brief report, the maximum number of:
    • Tables or figures are 2
    • References are 20


Case Report


A case report is a case study, case report, or other description of a case that should contain a structured abstract. In the other meaning, clinical presentations that may be followed by evaluative studies that eventually lead to a diagnosis .



Abstract of Case reports should comprise the below sections:

  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Conclusions


Full Text

Full text of a case report includes:

  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Discussion

 In a case report, the maximum number of:

      • Tables or figures are 2
  • References are 20



  • A modification or correction of previously published material; this is sometimes called “errata”.
  • Correction refers to changes the author wants to introduce post-acceptance, at any time thereafter, during the publication processes or post-publication.
  • If the author determines that it is scientifically necessary, then it should be made. A Correction is then created and published in the next available issue.
  • In addition, it is linked online to the published article, and if the article is referenced, the Correction information should be included.


Correction as a new article

All corrections must be submitted in the journal website and will be reviewed by the EIC. After accepting a correction, this new article will be published in the journal.


Word Count:

The maximum word count of a correction is 250 words.





Start the editorial with a unique and catchy quotation, question, statistic, or any other sentence relevant to the topic that will help grab the reader's attention. Also, present your argument at this stage.


The body of your editorial piece should explain the issue at hand objectively without any trace of biasedness. Discuss each and every aspect of your topic, address the 5 W's and H (what, when, where, who, why, and how.)

Start by addressing your opposition, people who have dissimilar views. You can also highlight the positive aspects of the opposition as long as they are facts.

Next, you need to refute the opposing side. Provide strong reasons and evidence that can help with the credibility of your stance.

When addressing a problem, you need to propose a valid and applicable solution.


 End the editorial with a strong, thought-provoking statement. Your reader must get a sense of closure and completeness from the ending.



Letter to the Editor


Letters to the Editor about a recent journal article are referring to a recent article in this journal must be received within three months of its publication. For example, a letter referring to an article published in the January issue must be submitted online no later than March 31st. Letters submitted after the allowed time will not be considered.


  • A maximum of three (3) authors and 10 references are allowed.
  • Neither tables nor figures are allowed.


LETTER is often accompanied by a REPLY.




Works consisting of an announcement or statement of recent or current events of new data and matters of interest in the field of medicine or science. 


News may contain a non-structured abstract.

Full Text:

In a news article, the maximum number of:

  • Tables or figures are 1
  • References are 10


Word Count:

For more information about standard word count of this article type, please refer here.

An overview of all article types could be read here.



Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT)


Definition of RCT Code:

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) has established a requirement that all randomized clinical trials (RCT) be entered in a public registry before the onset of patient enrollment, as a condition of consideration for publication. The definition of a clinical trial as established by the ICMJE is any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relation between a medical intervention and a health outcome.


RCT Code is required

This journal requires registration of randomized clinical trials in such public trial registries as those of the National Institutes of Health and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials.


The journal will be including the identifier number in Clinical Trial articles. This rule is concluded from ICMJE web site for their editorial and updates on the topic of registering clinical trials before publication of the results. The ICMJE recommends that the clinical trial registration number be included at the end of the abstract. A sample of general display format for the code obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov is: an alphabetic label of ClinicalTrials.gov followed by a slash and then an 11-digit alphanumeric string starting with NCT followed by eight numbers. For instance, an example in the Citation format display would be: ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00000161.


Where can I register my RCT?

ClinicalTrials.gov or similar registries provide a vehicle which allows organizations and individuals to provide the data requested by ICMJE, which has adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) minimal registration data set.

This Journal accepts registration in the following registries:

  1. www.irct.ir
  2. www.actr.org.au
  3. www.clinicaltrials.gov
  4. www.ISRCTN.org
  5. www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm
  6. www.trialregister.nl


Which phases of RCT is required to be registered?

The Phase III trials must be registered, and phase II trials are appropriate to register. Most phase I trials do not need to be registered. Please clearly state in the methods section of the manuscript the trial registration number including where the registration is publicly available. Visit the website of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for more information.


More information:


Rapid Communication

We don't suggest this type of article. Instead please use "Brief Report".



Research Articles


Research Articles also are called “Original Articles”, which are considered as the common types of articles. The content of the paper must justify its length.



A structured abstract is required including these headings:

  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Conclusions


Full Text:

For the original research, traditional sections are required including:

  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Acknowledgments

In the full text of an original article, the maximum number of:

    • References are: 55
  • Illustrations or tables are 5



Review Article


State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters including a review of the literatures. This type of article summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic. A review article surveys and summarizes previously published studies, rather than reporting new facts or analysis. 



The structured or unstructured abstract of a review article contains the below headings:

  • Context
  • Evidence Acquisition
  • Results
  • Conclusions


Full Text: 

The full text of a review article contains the below sections:

  • Context: It includes 1 or 2 sentences describing the clinical question or issue and its importance in clinical practice or public health.
  • Evidence Acquisition: This section describes the data sources, including the research strategies, time of the study, and other sources of the used materials, such as subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles. It explains the methods used for quality assessment and the inclusion of identified articles.
  • Results: This section addresses the major findings of the review of the clinical issue or topic in an evidence-based, objective, and balanced style, emphasizing the available highest-quality evidence.
  • Conclusions: It clearly states the conclusions to answer the posed questions, if applicable, based on the conclusions of the available evidence, and it emphasizes how clinicians should apply the current knowledge.
     In a review article, the maximum number of: 
    • References are 80
    • Illustrations or table are 5




Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis

Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis:

Authors should report systematic reviews and meta-analyses in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Systematic Reviews maximum number of references is 100, maximum number of illustrations/Tables is 6. For Systematic Reviews, both abstract and text of the manuscript should be subdivided into the following sequential sections:

1) Context: Provide a sentence or two explaining the importance of the review question.
2) Objective: State the precise primary objective of the review. Indicate whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention and include information about the specific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that are being reviewed.
3) Data Sources: Succinctly summarize data sources, including years searched. Include in the search the most current information possible, ideally conducting the search several months before the date of manuscript submission. Potential sources include computerized databases and published indexes, registries, abstract booklets, conference proceedings, references identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles and books, experts or research institutions active in the field, and companies or manufacturers of tests or agents being reviewed. If a bibliographic database is used, state the exact indexing terms used for article retrieval, including any constraints (for example, English language or human subjects). If abstract space does not permit this level of detail, summarize sources in the abstract including databases and years searched, and place the remainder of the information in the "Methods" section of the text.
4) Study Selection: Describe inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select studies for detailed review from among studies identified as relevant to the topic. Under details of selection include particular populations, interventions, outcomes, or methodological designs. Specify the method used to apply these criteria (for example, blinded review, consensus, multiple reviewers). State the proportion of initially identified studies that met selection criteria.
5) Data Extraction: Describe guidelines used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity (such as criteria for causal inference). State the method by which the guidelines were applied (eg, independent extraction by multiple observers).
6) Results:State the main results of the review, whether qualitative or quantitative, and outline the methods used to obtain these results. For meta-analyses, state the major outcomes that were pooled and include odds ratios or effect sizes and, if possible, sensitivity analyses. Accompany numerical results by confidence intervals, if applicable, and exact levels of statistical significance. For evaluations of screening and diagnostic tests, include sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, receiver operating characteristic curves, and predictive values. For assessments of prognosis, summarize survival characteristics and related variables. State the major identified sources of variation between studies, including differences in treatment protocols, protocols, co-interventions, confounders, outcome measures, length of follow-up, and dropout rates.
7) Conclusions: Clearly state the conclusions and their applications (clinical or otherwise), limiting interpretation to the domain of the review.

Systematic reviews are welcome. They should be critical assessments of current evidence covering a broad range of topics of concern to those working in the specfic field of journal. Systematic reviews abstracts to be structured as above. N.B. For advice on writing systematic reviews consult: The Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook
Meta-analysis of observational studies: A MOOSE checklist is required for meta-analysis of observational studies

Medline Article Types

Authors of journals indexed in Medline are required to submit their manuscripts based on the below article types:

  •     Addresses
  •     Bibliography
  •     Case Reports
  •     Classical Article
  •     Clinical Conference
  •     Clinical Trial
  •     Congresses
  •     Consensus Development Conference
  •     Consensus Development Conference, NIH
  •     Corrected and Republished Article
  •     Editorial
  •     Festschrift
  •     Guideline
  •     Interview
  •     Journal Article
  •     Lectures
  •     Letter
  •     Meta-Analysis
  •     News
  •     Newspaper Article
  •     Observational Study
  •     Patient Education Handout
  •     Practice Guideline
  •     Published Erratum
  •     Retraction of Publication
  •     Review
  •     Video-Audio Media
  •     Webcasts


Corresponding article types in Medline vs. PMC

Link: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/pubtypes.html


Corresponding Article Types in Medline vs. PMC

The below table shows the corresponding equivalent types of article in Medline vs. Pubmed Central.

Medline Type

PMC Type





Journal Article


Case Reports


Classical Article


Clinical Conference


Clinical Trial




Consensus Development Conference


Consensus Development Conference, NIH


Corrected and Republished Article










Journal Article










Newspaper Article


Observational Study


Patient Education Handout


Practice Guideline


Published Erratum


Retraction of Publication




Video-Audio Media





Meeting Report


  • A meeting report is created to give information about the discussion that transpired on a particular meeting.
  • Only invited authors are permitted to submit a meeting report for the journal.

Full Text:

The basic structure of a meeting report contains:

  • Purpose of meeting
  • Summary of presented findings
  • Recommendation for future research

Names and affiliations of key speakers should be presented in supplemental information, not as a part of text.