How to Write an Article?






The bibliography is a list of the cited references given at the end of a manuscript. Each reference contains all the details needed to find a piece of information, in a specified order. Different details are needed for different formats of information. It is important to use the same style, punctuation and order of the details throughout your paper.


Reference Validity:


Based on our policy, at least 80% of the references must be included from valid sources and have DOI. The number of valid references can be detected by Crossref Simple Text Query. Writing and managing references using EndNote software is highly recommended



 Writing references as an Endnote or Refman file will be considered as an advantage when submitting a manuscript.



Types of Reference


  1. Journal Articles
  2. Books and Other Monographs
  3. Anonymous Books and Articles
  4. Conference Papers
  5. Corporate Publications
  6. Electronic Materials
  7. Government Publications
  8. Online Sources
  9. Other Published Materials
  10. Unpublished materials



Useful Resources:






What is Cover Letter?


Cover letter is an official letter written by corresponding author and signed by all authors which introduces the manuscript briefly and states that:


  1. The manuscript is original work of author. All data, tables, figures, etc. used in the manuscript are prepared originally by authors, otherwise the sources are cited and a reprint permission should be attached.
  2. The manuscript has not been and will not be published elsewhere or submitted elsewhere for publication.
  3. Conflict of interest: To prevent the information on potential conflict of interest for authors from being overlooked or misplaced, mention this information in the cover letter.
  4. Ethics of experimentation/Informed consent: The cover letter must include a statement declaring that the study complies with current ethical considerations. Authors reporting experimental studies on human subjects must include a statement of assurance in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript reading that: 


  • Informed consent was obtained from each patient included in the study
  • The study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a prior approval by the institution's human research committee.
  • In studies involving animal experimentation, provide assurance that all animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 86-23 revised 1985).


Drug Names


Generic drug names must be used in the title and throughout the whole manuscript, as well. The proprietary name should be included in parentheses, along with the name of manufacturer, and city, upon the first mention in the text.




Figures must be submitted as separate files in submission process. Each figure needs a caption.


  • Authors should declare in the cover letter that all figures of their manuscripts are original, otherwise the original source of figures should be mentioned and reprint form must be uploaded in the attachments.
  • Scanned graph from other resources will not be accepted to publish.
  • All Figures should be in the form of encapsulated postscript (.eps), power point (.ppt), portable document format (.pdf), Photoshop (.psd), TIF (.tiff), PNG (png) or JPG (.jpg).
  • The raw data of the charts should be uploaded in Microsoft excel format (MS Office 2007 or newer)
  • Please scan all images in at least 300dpi. Most consumer scanners scan in sRGB by default. However, if you are using a high-end scanner then Adobe RGB is recommended for optimum color depth.Colorspace should be in RGB.
  • Image quality specification for Line art (an image composed of lines and text which does not contain tonal or shaded areas) has resolution of 900 dpi, hafltone (a continuous tone photograph which contains no text) with 300 dpi and combination of both should have 500 dpi of resolution.
  •  We will NOT accept any images with resolution below 300 dpi.


More information about file specifications can be seen at:


Full Word File without Title Page

 This file must contain all parts of the manuscript including in the format of Microsoft Word .Docx (normal style, line hight: 1, fon size: 14, clear,):

    • Abstract
    • Article Body
    • Tables
    • Acknowledgments
    • Appendices


  • Upload figure(s) as separate files.
  • Please do NOT include title page in this file because this file will be sent to reviewers and authors must be blinded to our reviewers.

Overview of All Article Types


Article Types



The article itself is an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.


Material announced in the publication (may or may not be directly related to the publication).

Article Commentary

A work which emphasizes on another article or articles; this article comments on the other article(s). (Article Commentary would be used when the editors of a publication invite an author with an opposing opinion to comment on a controversial article, and then publish both. The slightly similar work “editorial” is reserved for commentary written by an editor or other publication staff).

Book Review

Review or analysis of one or more printed or online books (The similar work “product-review” is used for product analysis).

Books Received

Notification that items, e.g., books or other works, have been received by a publication for the review or other consideration.

Brief Report


Rapid Communication

Short manuscripts definitively documenting either experimental results or informative clinical observations will be considered for publication in this category


A list of events.

Case Report

A case report is a case study, case report, or other description of a case that should contain a structured abstract. In the other meaning, clinical presentations that may be followed by evaluative studies that eventually lead to a diagnosis (ref).

Clinical Trial

A work that reports on the results of a clinical study in which participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions so that researchers can evaluate the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes. The assignments are determined by the study protocol. Participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions. For clinical trials on veterinary animals see CLINICAL TRIAL, VETERINARY. Clinical Trials was used for both humans and non-humans prior to 2019.


Wrapper article for a series of sub-articles or responses; this work is restricted to the articles whose intellectual content appears primarily in the sub-article or response.


Invited discussion related to a specific article or issue. Discussion should follow the sections including Introduction, Arguments, and Conclusions.


Thesis or dissertation written as a part of the degree completion.


Opinion piece, policy statement, or general commentary, typically written by staff of the publication (The similar work “article-commentary” is reserved for a commentary on a specific article or articles, which is written by an author with a contrasting position, not an editor or other publication staff).

In Brief

Summary or teaser of the items in the current issue.


An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., for a special section or issue, typically.


Work consisting of written or printed communication between individuals or between persons and representatives of corporate bodies. The correspondence may be personal or professional. In medical and other scientific publications the letter is usually from one or more authors to the editor of the journal or book publishing the item being commented upon or discussed. LETTER is often accompanied by COMMENT.

Meeting Report

Individual abstracts of presentations at meetings, congresses, conferences, symposia, colloquia, seminars, workshops, round tables, and other professional gatherings.


Works consisting of an announcement or statement of recent or current events of new data and matters of interest in the field of medicine or science. In some publications, such as "Nature" or "Science," the news reports are substantively written and herald medical and scientific data of vital or controversial importance.


Announcement of a death, or the appreciation for a colleague who has recently died.


Reprint of a speech or oral presentation.

Partial Retraction

Retraction or disavowal of part(s) of the previously published material.

Product Review

Description, analysis, or review of a product or service, for example, a software package (The similar value “book-review” is used for analysis of the books).


Reply to a letter or commentary, typically by the original author commenting upon the comments.


Reprint of a previously published article.

Research Article

Article reporting on primary research (The related value “review-article” describes a literature review, research summary, or state-of-the-art article.)


Retraction or disavowal of a previously published material. Furthermore, withdrawal regulations could be found here.

Review Article

Review or state-of-the-art summary article (The related value “research-article” describes original research.)

Systematic Review

A review of primary literature in health and health policy that attempts to identify, appraise, and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. Its conduct uses explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias in order to produce more reliable findings regarding the effects of interventions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation that can be used to inform decision making.


 Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.


A translation of an article, originally written in a different language.


Work that is the republication of an article to correct, amplify, or restore text and data of the originally published article.

Reply to Reviewers

Step I) Reply to comments ONE by ONE

  • Author(s) must reply to all reviewers' comments in a separate word file, point by point.
  • It is suggested that author(s) write both questions (from reviewers) and their answers one by one.
    • e.g.:
      • Q: [reviewer's first question]
      • R: [author's first reply]
  • Then this reply file must be uploaded during submitting a revision.

Step II) Highlight Changed Parts in Manuscript Word File

  • Furthermore, author(s) are requested to upload revised word file with highlighted parts. It means that all changes of a word file must be highlighted.


Article Body

[Especially required for Research Articles]

The rest of the article differs according to the article type, but generally it includes the following headings:

  • Background & Objectives
  • Materials/Patients and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References


  • All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be covered in the acknowledgement section.
  • It should include persons who provided technical help, writing assistance and departmental head that only provided general support.
  • Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.


All authors can either put the formula in full manuscript without title page file ( *.docx format) and if there is a problem in the auto generated pdf files, authors can upload formula as a Formula file type (or as Other file type if you do not find Formula file type in *.doc format). If you encounter any problems in this regard, you can contact us via .


To distinguish different parts of the article, it is recommended to use the  Times New Roman font (size 12) for the body, size 12 bold for subheadings, size 14 for headings and size 14 bold for the title.

Units, symbols, and abbreviations

Internationally accepted units (International System of Units), symbols, and abbreviations must be used. Abbreviations should be used sparingly and must be introduced in parentheses upon first mention. Abbreviations that have meaning only within the context of the specific manuscript should be avoided.

Word Count Limits


If you had any question, contact us.



Journal Articles


Structure of a reference with this type (journal article) is as below:

  • Author's surname, followed by the initials or first name; for articles by up to and including six authors, list all authors separated by commas
  • The title of the article, followed by a full stop
  • The title of the journal abbreviated. No punctuation should be used.
  • Date of publication: the year followed by the month (abbreviated to three letters) and the day followed by a semi-colon.
  • The volume and issue number, the latter in brackets, followed by a colon
  • The page numbers, followed by a full stop

How to find a journal abbreviation?

Use NLM catalog or WOS

If you cannot find a particular journal title in the NLM database, check one of the following.

If you still cannot find an abbreviation, build one using the ISSN International Centre's LTWA (LTWA stands for List of Title Word Abbreviations, go to Access to the LTWA). For example, if you had an article from the fictitious Annals of Egyptian Nutrition, you would find the abbreviation for Annals (Ann), then the abbreviation for Egyptian (Egypt) and, finally, the abbreviation for Nutrition (Nutr) to come up with Ann Egypt Nutr.

Standard journal article

List the first six authors followed by et al.

  • --Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al.Vitamin E and Respiratory Tract Iinfections in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18;292(7):828-36.
  • --Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
  • --As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.
  • --Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7. 

More than six authors

  • Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the citation

  • Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.
  • Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed ID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.

Organization as the author

  • Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

Both personal authors and organization as the author (List all as they appear in the byline.)

  • -- Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.
  • -- Margulies EH, Blanchette M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Haussler D, Green ED. Identification and characterization of multi-species conserved sequences. Genome Res. 2003 Dec;13(12):2507-18.

No author is given

  • 21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Article not in English 

  • Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

Optional translation of the article title 

  • Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

Volume with the supplement

  • Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

Issue with the supplement

  • Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

Volume with the part

  • Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.

Issue with the part

  • Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.

Issue with no volume

  • Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.

No volume or issue

  • Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction. 2002 Jun:1-6.

Pagination in roman numerals

  • Chadwick R, Schuklenk U. The politics of ethical consensus finding. Bioethics. 2002;16(2):iii-v.

The type of article is indicated as needed

  • -- Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.
  • -- Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S105.

Article containing a retraction

  • Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169. Retraction of: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11.

Article containing a partial retraction

  • Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction after removal of eroded slings. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749. Partial retraction of: Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3):1040-4.

Article retracted

  • Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000; 61(12):909-11. Retraction in: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63(2):169.

Article partially retracted

  • Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction following removal of eroded synthetic mid urethral slings. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4. Partial retraction in: Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Dec; 176(6 Pt 1):2749.

Article republished with corrections

  • Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002; 188(1-2):22-5. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001; 183(1-2):123-6.

Article with published erratum

  • Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther. 2000; 22(10):1151-68; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Ther. 2001; 23(2):309.

Article published electronically ahead of the print version

  • Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15; 100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.



Online Sources

For all websites, the access date (date of access to the information) and the database name or web address (URL) are needed. You can cite online articles in the same way you would print.


  • WWW document
    These are the details you need to cite a web document:
    Author/editor's surname author/editor's first name or initials. Editor [if appropriate]. Title of page. Title of site. Last update or copyright date. URL (Access date).
    Below is a sample reference for a web document.
    Royal College of General Practitioners. The Primary Health Care Team. RCGP website 2003 [cited 2004 Sep 22]; Available from: URL:
  • Article in an online format
    These are the details you need:
    Author's surname, initials. (Year) Document title. Journal title, Volume (part).
    Below is a sample reference for an online article.
    Drasin, Todd, Dutson, Erik and Gracia, Carlos. Use of a Robotic System as Surgical First Assistant in Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 199(3).