Colorectal Unit, Department of Surgery, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, Northumberland, UK
Context Intra-abdominal sepsis has significant morbidity and mortality. In the developed world, there are many common causes originating from the lower gastrointestinal tract including diverticular disease, appendicitis, perforated cancers, and inflammatory bowel disease. It has a high cost and is associated with high levels of significant morbidity and mortality. Management options include radiologic drainage and surgical options include resection for more widespread sepsis. Laparoscopic surgery has increased and has been useful in elective setting. Its use in the emergency setting is less evaluated. Evidence Acquisition Evidence was acquired by searching online medical databases including Pubmed, Medline and Embase. Results Laparoscopic surgery has been shown to have a role in the acute setting. Studies show it has become the gold standard in the appendicitis. High quality Randomized controlled trials are in short supply but observational and cohort studies have shown equivalence and with increasing experience complication rates are reduced. Evidence is also increasing in the management of diverticular disease, crohn’s and ulcerative colitis as well as post-operative complication management and acute presentations of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery is feasible in the management of intra-abdominal sepsis. It has become the new accepted standard in the management of appendicitis, and is safe, feasible and increasing in the management of complex diverticular disease, acute IBD and colorectal cancer in the emergency and post-operative setting.